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Argument Writing

Page history last edited by Wendy Rooney 6 months, 2 weeks ago




A strong argument requires a strong claim... How to build a strong argument pack for grades 6-12




http://cdn.scope.scholastic.com/sites/default/files/SCOPE-Library-GenericEssayKit.pdf  - Argument Essay Guide




Steps to writing a strong ARGUMENT ESSAY: 


1. Decide What You Think - Claim/Thesis


2. Find Your Support - Which elements support your opinion? What other points support your opinion? Do you have supporting details?


3. Acknowledge the other side (Counter Argument) - Summarize the strongest arguments of those who disagree with you.


4. Craft Your Thesis (Central Claim) - The THESIS is where you tell readers what your essay is going to be about. The THESIS should be a clear, strong statement of the opinion you stated in Step 1. The rest of your essay should support your THESIS.


5. Write Your Hook - The very beginning of your essay is called the HOOK because it "HOOKS" your readers' attention. The HOOK should relate to the topic of your essay, but it can take many forms. It can be an ANECDOTE (a very short story), a FACT, a QUOTE, or a RHETORICAL QUESTION (a question to which you don't expect an answer).


6. Summarize the Issue - Let readers know a little about the issue you will be writing about. THIS IS NOT YOUR POINT OF VIEW! It's a brief summary of the issue.


7. Start Writing!



CLAIM - In academic writing, an argument is usually a main idea, often called a “claim” or “thesis statement,” backed up with evidence that supports the idea. 



Argument, Persuasive, Opinion Writing - Teaching the Argument Standard 



http://www.edgalaxy.com/journal/2013/11/21/argumentative-writing-graphic-organizer - Argument Writing Video



Writing an Argument Essay



http://scope.scholastic.com/issues/02_01_15/debate-essay-kit - Should Kids Play Football?




http://cdn.scope.scholastic.com/sites/default/files/uploads_scope/issues/020115/pdfs/SCOPE-020115-Debate-EssayKit.pdf - Should Kids Play Football? (Feb. 2015)


http://cdn.scope.scholastic.com/sites/default/files/uploads_scope/issues/020115/pdfs/SCOPE-020115-Debate-EssayKit.pdf - Guided Writing - Should Kids Play Football? (SCOPE - Feb. 2015)










Step 1: Decide what you think

Step 2: Craft Your THESIS (What is your essay about? The THESIS should be a clear, strong statement of your opinion. DO NOT USE "I think", "I believe", "I'm going to tell you")

Step 3: Write your HOOK (Hook should relate to the topic of your essay, but it can take many forms. It can be an ANECDOTE (a very short story), a FACT, a QUOTE, or a RHETORICAL QUESTION (a question to which you don't expect an answer).

Step 4: Summarize the Issue - Let readers know a little about the issue you will be writing about. This in NOT your point of view; it's a very brief summary of the issue.


Does the FIRST SENTENCE grab reader's attention?

Does the FIRST PARAGRAPH provide a general overview of the essay's topic?

Does the FIRST PARAGRAPH include a THESIS STATEMENT that strongly & clearly states your point of view? 
Does the THESIS clue readers in as to what the essay is going to be about? 



Step 1: Find Your Support

Step 2: Acknowledge the Other Side (Counter Argument/Opposing View Point)

Do they contain a total of at least 3 points that support the thesis?

Do they provide details to further explain each of the supporting points?

Are the supporting points presented in order from the weakest to the strongest?

Do you acknowledge an opposing point of view & then explain why you think it isn't strong enough to change your point of view?





Does the last paragraph remind readers of the main points of the essay, without going into too much detail & repeating everything readers just read?

Is the conclusion free of new information (such as another supporting point)?

Finish with a strong sentence. Does the last sentence leave readers with a strong final impression? Looking for an idea? Try referring to your hook, finding a quote, or inspiring your readers.




Does one idea flow smoothly into the next?

Do the sentence structures & lengths vary?

Does every sentence relate to the thesis?

Does everything make sense?

Is the essay convincing?

Are the grammar, punctuation, & spelling correct?



Use "Argument-Essay Checklist" to evaluate & edit what you have written.
Make any necessary changes & write a second draft.



Claims written for Argument - http://www.mesacc.edu/~paoih30491/ArgumentClaims.html




If you are adding information or showing similarity between ideas:

additionally                    besides                    so too                    first of all/secondly/thirdly

in addition                     also                          likewise                  to begin with

as well as                        another                   furthermore           finally


If you are showing that one idea is different from another:

 however                         even though           in contrast              on the one hand/on the other hand

yet                                   despite                    still                         some people say/other people say

but                                   although                in spite of               regardless


If you are showing that something is an example of what you just stated:

for example                    to illustrate            this can be seen

for instance                     namely                   specifically       


If you want to show cause & effect:

as a result                        consequently         so

it follows that                 therefore                eventually


If you want to add emphasis:

in fact                              of course               truly                    even                    indeed




http://www.ccsdut.org/webpages/scarles/files/persuasive-pets-things-to-consider.pdf - What to Consider When Choosing a Pet


http://www.ccsdut.org/webpages/scarles/files/argument-essay-zoos-color-code-key.pdf - Outline - Color Coded


http://www.ccsdut.org/webpages/scarles/files/rubric-argumentative-essay.pdf - Argument Essay Rubric Example



Should Bugs Be On Restaurant Menus? 


Argument Essay – Should insects be on restaurant menus?

Paragraph 1:


Anecdote: Describe your personal experience with eating bugs. Have you ever eaten any? Do you know people who eat them?

I have learned to ride my bike with my mouth shut because swallowing that no-see-em will stay with me until I die! It wiggled and shook all the way down my throat until I thought I was going to vomit.


Surprising Fact: Find a fact that will raise your readers’ eyebrows. Use a fact from the article or research one.

There are over 1,900 insects considered safe for humans to eat.


Rhetorical Question: Ask your readers a question that reflects your point of view about eating bugs.

If we eat cows, why shouldn’t we eat scorpions?


At least 3 mid-paragraph sentences so your reader knows what your essay is about.


Thesis/Claim Statement - The last sentence of paragraph 1



Paragraphs 2,3,4 - The Body Paragraphs

Each paragraph should contain:

-a reason to support your thesis/claim

-transition words - one to begin your paragraph, one to begin your counter argument


Paragraph 5 - Conclusion Paragraph 


- Begin with a transition word or phrase (In conclusion, All in all, To sum it up, etc)

- Briefly restate your 3 reasons

- Restate your thesis/claim

- Call to Action - Tell your readers EXACTLY what you want them to do



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNh7O7vbbGw - Writing a Counter Argument/Counter Claim, and Rebuttal





Key Terms for Argumentation


Claim – Your basic belief about a particular topic, issue, event, or idea


Counterclaim – A solid and reasonable argument that opposes or disagrees with your claim


Rebuttal – A written or verbal response to a counterclaim. The object of the rebuttal is to take into account the ideas presented in the counterclaim and explain why they aren’t persuasive enough, valid enough, or important enough to outweigh your own claim.


Support – Your specific facts or specific evidence used to support why your claim is true


Refute – Argue against a position or prove it to be wrong


Qualify – A “partly-agree” stance in which you agree (in part) with another person’s argument or position but also disagree with part of it.



http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/persuasion_map/ - Interactive Persuasive Map


Effective Endings for Opinion Writing Notebook Anchor Chart part of Opinion Writing Unit {My Opinion Matters!} Writing Notebook Anchor Charts, Anchor Charts for the Classroom, Rubric, and Checklists:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVPYUB07JCk - Writing an Argument Essay


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lzGy5gizKg - Schmoop - Argument Essay


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAUKxr946SI -Argument Writing - Hamburger


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ZFIL-A6r08 - Claims & Counterclaims - Powtoon


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CONi4J04I7k#t=499.255159 - Manhattan Beach Pier - Paragraph 1



Read "The Stripes Will Survive" & "The Zoos Go Wild," the watch Behind the Scenes with the National Zoo's Lions Cubs."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_TIzTvS2U0 - National Zoo Lion Cubs


Write an argument essay based on the necessity for, or an argument against, zoos. 


https://learnzillion.com/lesson_plans/8206-write-a-thesis-statement-for-an-argumentative-essay - Thesis Writing



Debate - Should Balloons Be Banned? - SCOPE - March 2017





Persuasive writers are emotional strategists.
They are the cheerleaders, the advertisers, and the motivational speakers of the world. 
Successful persuasive writers move people to action in order to sell ideas and products. 
Their goal? To make readers or listeners follow them, buy from them, or support them.


Argument writers are research specialists. 
They are the expert witnesses, the investigative journalists, and the medical diagnosticians of the world. 
Successful argument writers compare viewpoints, analyze claims, and provide evidence. 
Their goal? To make readers or listeners understand issues, trust their intentions, or make informed decisions.





In literature, a claim is a statement that asserts something to be true. A claim can either be factual or a judgment. Claims can work on their own or in conjunction with other claims to form a larger argument. The word claim comes from the Latin word clamare, which means “to cry out, shout.”



Argument VS. Persuasivehttp://heniss.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/89423117/argumentative%20vs%20persuasive.pdf


Should Kids Be Allowed on Reality TV






Argumentative Essay Topics



  1. Should the school day start later for teens and earlier for younger students (rather than the opposite)?
  2. Do online students have more opportunities to cheat?
  3. Should internet slang, like 'LOL' and 'IMHO' be included in dictionaries?
  4. Should all energy drinks be banned?
  5. Should drunk drivers be imprisoned on the first offense?
  6. Students caught cheating on important exams or papers should automatically fail the course. 
  7. Professional athletes convicted of using performance-enhancing drugs should not be considered for induction into the Hall of Fame. 
  8. Should sports be coed?
  9. Should schools sell fast food?

10.  Should students wear school uniforms?

11.  Should there be harsher punishments for bullying?

12.  Is it fair to ban preteenagers and teenagers from the mall without adult supervision?

13.  Should there be less homework?

14.  Does summer school benefit the student?

15.  Should school sports be mandatory?

16.  Should you have to wear your seat belt on the bus?

17.  Should students who play sports still have to take Gym class?

18.  Do violent games and television shows make kids violent?


Argument Essay Graphic Organizers









Argument Writing



Paragraph 1:

-         Hook your reader

-         Brief introduction to your topic

-         Claim

Paragraph 2:

-         Reason

-         Supporting Evidence

Paragraph 3:

-         Reason

-         Supporting Evidence

Paragraph 4:

-         Reason

-         Supporting Evidence

-         Counterclaim

-         Rebuttal

Paragraph 5:

-         Sum up your argument

-         Restate Claim

-         Call to action








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